Different methods of geothermal capturing
Geothermal heat over horizontal buried heat exchangers
They are mainly installed in the residential sector because of the surface needed (1,5 - 2 times the surface to be heated). Currently, the PACAO on horizontal heat exchangers constitutes the geothermal system more widely spread by the residential French market. The total length of the pipes of horizontal heat exchangers exceeds several hundreds of meters.
The pipes are deployed in distances curls at least about 40 cm to avoid an excessive capture of the soil heat. The heat exchangers must be at least 2 m away of the trees and more than 3 m of the foundations of the buildings, walls, septic tanks or evacuation network. The surface over the heat exchangers must be permeable (no terrace or any construction) in order to allow an efficient recharge of them.
Geothermal heat over vertical buried heat exchangers
The vertical heat exchanger is generally a double U probe made by polyethylene on which circulates a water circuit with antifreeze. This probe is buried between 80 – 100 meters deep.
The power obtained of the soil corresponds to 50W/m of perforation, which gives an indicative reference for new homes about 1 meter depth for 1 m² of surface necessary to be heated. It is possible to make one or several perforations with at least 10 m between each other to obtain the necessary power for the heating your home. This solution has the advantage of avoiding the limitations of the surface. It is convenient for heating individual homes, but also small groups and office blocks that are limited by the nearby surface.
Geothermal heat over aquifer
The water is taken from an underground aquifer existing and easily accessible, in some cases a lake or a river. It is necessary to assure the existence of a sufficient flow throughout the year. The very low temperature variation of ground-waters allows these heat pumps to offer high performance independently of the season.
We distinguish mainly two devices as the installation works with a single drilling (well of production) or with two drillings (well of production and injection). In the first case, the water of the aquifer is thrown up to the surface (river, pond or rain drainage net) while in the second case, it is thrown back to the groundwater of origin.
The PACAO HT over aquifer is particularly met in the tertiary sector, on installations of heating / air conditioning of high power. They indeed guarantee in these conditions of very interesting operating costs, while requiring an investment appreciably lower than the solution on vertical buried heat exchanger.
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